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What are Joint Reconstruction Devices and why are they needed?

Published Date : July 19, 2017

Joint reconstructions surgery is an operation in which orthopedic prosthesis are used to reconstruct or replace a debilitated joint surface. When a patient has a dysfunctional joint or suffers from relentless pain in the joint which cannot be allayed by less protruding therapies Joint Reconstruction is advised to these patients as an effective treatment. The reconstruction of hips and knees is more frequent in joint reconstruction surgeries. 

Background

The two formerly well-known structures of arthroplasty were:

1.    Excisional arthroplasty- which was performed by removing the bone and the surface of the joint with scar tissue to occupy the space. 

2.    Interpositional arthroplasty- which was performed by interpolating various tissues like muscles, tendon or skin keepingparts that are inflammatory.

Cup arthroplasty, resection arthroplasty, silicone replacement arthroplasty,mold arthroplasty are more structures of arthroplasty useful for joint reconstruction. In the contemporary years surgical reconstruction by using prosthesis is the most popular and lucrative procedure of arthroplasty. The use of this surgery is to retain muscle strength, retaining the ability to move a patient who is suffering from a dysfunctional joint and soothing pain. For example if a hip joint is damaged due to osteoarthritis, that particular hip joint will be replace by a prosthetic hip completely.

Procedure 

A thorough work-up which is pre-anesthetic is extremely essential prior to a major surgery. Blood tests, urine tests, hematology and electrocardiogram is involved in the surgery when performed on aged people. As a large number of patients have a blood transfusion, cross match of the blood is also one of the imperative procedures to be followed. Templating, precise x-rays of the joint that has been damaged, size–matching and implant design are few procedures added to the planning that is done before the surgery. This is followed by improvement healing over a period of few months and guarded activities for a period of few weeks in order to make the joints stronger. A patient being mobile in early stages is said to be less prone to complexities like Pneumonia. For speeding up the recovery of the patients after joint reconstruction surgery Physiotherapy is advised broadly. An exercise regime is required in the initial stages as the joints may require time to heal. Once the recovery is done the regime is focused on strengthening the muscles.

Specific Joint Reconstructions

Hip Reconstruction- This surgery is mainly to cure the pain of arthritis or fracture in the hip. In this procedure the hip joint is repossessed by an implant that is prosthetic also termed hip prosthesis. Hip reconstruction is advised only after various therapies. 

Knee Reconstruction-

also termed as knee arthroplasty is a surgery to repossess the exterior of the knee joint which bears the weight in order to eliminate disability and alleviate pain. It generally carried out for psoriatic arthritisand osteoarthritis.

Shoulder Reconstruction-

is a procedure in which the glenohumeral joint is repossessed partly or entirely by using prosthesis. In case of serious damage of joints this surgery is carried out. Arthritis causes the loss of the protective lining between the bones, as the cartilages are severely damaged.